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Grid Parity of Solar PV Rooftop Systems for the Commercial and Industrial Sectors

Solar Energy’s Docs Grid Parity of Solar PV Rooftop Systems for the Commercial and Industrial Sectors

© The Energy and Resources Institute 2016
ISBN 9788179935880
RETA, 2016.
Grid Parity of Solar PV Rooftop Systems for the Commercial and Industrial Sectors:
New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute. 172 pp

Disclaimer
The KfW Development Bank does not make any warranty, either expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility
for the accuracy, completeness, or any third party’s use of or results of such use of any information, apparatus, product, or process
disclosed of the information contained herein or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. The views and
opinion of the authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the KfW Development Bank.
While every effort has been made to ensure the correctness of data/information used in this report, neither the authors nor
institutes accept any legal liability for the accuracy or inferences drawn from the material contained therein or any consequences
arising from use of this material

Contents
Abbreviation ix
Acknowledgements xiii
Executive Summary xv
1 Introduction: Grid Parity of Solar PV Rooftop Systems
for the Commerical and Industrial Sectors 1
1.1 Market Potential 1
1.2 Institutional Structure 3
1.3 Policy and Regulatory Environment 5
1.4 Rooftop SPV Programmes of MNRE 5
1.5 Upcoming Plans 7
1.6 Financing 8
1.7 Study Objectives 8
2 Grid Integration and Regulatory Playing Field 9
2.1 State Policies and Regulatory Frameworks 9
2.2 Key Observations on Net Metering Regulations in Different States 15
2.3 Rooftop Solar Policies: International Experiences 17
3 Review of Electricity Tariffs 21
3.1 Projection of Commercial Tariff Across Study States 24
3.2 Observations from Review of Tariffs 27
4 Operating Layouts 29
4.1 Irradiation Data 29
4.2 Operating Layout—Basic Settings 30
4.3 Conclusions 33
5 Load Profiling 35
5.1 Load Curves and Available Roof Area 35
5.2 PV System Optimization for Different Applications 39
5.3 Conclusions 43
vi
6 Rooftop Solar Systems: Costs and Designs 45
6.1 Rooftop SPV Costs 45
6.2 PV System Design 47
6.3 Conclusions 59
7 Overview of the Market Potential 61
7.1 Market Survey Approach 61
7.2 Market Survey Results 62
7.3 Conclusions 66
8 Rooftop Solar PV: Cost of Energy 69
8.1 Model Approach 69
8.2 Model Outputs 73
8.3 Conclusions 87
9 Supply Infrastructure 91
9.1 Training Institutes and Survey of Courses Offered 91
9.2 Standards and Codes Relevant for Rooftop PV in India 95
9.3 Building Code 98
9.4 Conclusions 100
10 Environmental and Social Impacts 101
10.1 Screening of Environmental and Social Impacts 101
10.2 Recycling of PV Modules 104
10.3 Recycling of Batteries 108
10.4 Conclusions 110
11 Annexure 111
Annexure A2.1: Commercial and Industrial Tariff 111
Annexure A6.1: Site Survey and Roof Inspection Template 123
Annexure A6.2: Voltage Drop Calculations 126
Annexure A8.1: Levelized Cost of Electricity 127
Annexure A8.2: Payback Period 131
Annexure A8.3: Net Present Value 138
Annexure A8.4: Internal Rate of Return 144
Annexure A9.1: List of SETNET Training Institutes 151
Annexure A10.1: List of Projects Requiring Environmental Clearance from
the Central Government in India 151

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